Wednesday, June 21, 2017



1.0       Introduction

1.1       Background to the Study

Public relations play a vital role between an organization and its public. Its practice aims at establishing a two-way communication, seeking common ground or areas of mutual interest and establishing understanding based on truth, knowledge and full information. It is that indispensable bridge that fosters co-operation and understanding. With increasing intensity, the civil society is rather active than passive in the affairs that concern them. Similarly, organizations are more socially responsible in their business undertaking in reference to public opinion. The reason is not far-fetched.

Today’s organizations, no matter how pretentious they are, are aware that they need to build dependable relationship with their publics. However, it is obvious that no matter how hard an organization attempts to project her image, occasions arise when crisis develops and threatens the very foundation of the organization concerned.

Public relations have myriad of definitions. The British Institute of Public Relations (1994) defines it as deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish mutual understanding between an organization and the public. The Mexican definition which was as a result of International conference held in Mexico City in 1978, says, Public relations practice is the art and social science of analyzing trend, predicting their consequences, counselling organization leader, and implementing planned programmer of action which will serve both the organization and the public interest.

Harlow (1976) defines it as distinctive management function which helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its public; involves the management of problems or issues; helps management to keep informed and responsive to public opinions, defines and emphasizes the responsibility of management keeps abreast of and effectively utilize change; serving as an early warning system to help anticipate trends and uses research and ethical communication techniques as its principal tools.

Indeed, Public Relations have long been discovered as not only a management function but the basis of philosophy of management. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th edition) crisis entails a time of great danger, difficulty or confusion when problems must be solved or important decisions must be made. ‘Crisis can be said to be an unsettling situation with disquieting disposition needing a return from the status quo.

In view of the situation in Nigeria currently, crisis can be in different forms, example political crisis, financial crisis, fuel crisis, labour crisis, civil disturbance engendered by a perceived wrong doing by a corporate organization, management, shareholder and management related crisis and so on. These are to mention but a few instances because there are so many dimension of crisis. Crisis can occur as a recall of an action of omission or negligence; even a natural disaster can trigger off crisis in an organization. Crisis can either be violent or non-violent in nature Solu (1994).

However, in as much as crisis is an inevitable situation, there is always the need to develop pre- emotive strategic method to prevent its occurrence. But in case crisis occurs and poses great danger, difficulty or uncertainly, the big questions for public relations experts or managers is: what do they do? How best do they utilize their training and knowledge to resolve a situation that is unstable and capable of a highly undesirable outcome?
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